Home / Giảng Luận / Đối trị tưởng điên đảo

Đối trị tưởng điên đảo

Ðiên Ðảo (AN 4.49) Vipallāsa, Inversions, 顛倒 (điên đảo)
– Này các tỳ-khưu, có bốn tưởng điên đảo, tâm điên đảo, kiến điên đảo này. Thế nào là bốn? (1) Trong vô thường, nghĩ là thường, đó là tưởng điên đảo, tâm điên đảo, kiến điên đảo. (2) Trong khổ, nghĩ là lạc, đó là tưởng điên đảo, tâm điên đảo, kiến điên đảo. (3) Trong vô ngã, nghĩ là ngã, này các tỳ-khưu, đó là tưởng điên đảo, tâm điên đảo, kiến điên đảo. (4) Trong bất tịnh (không hấp dẫn), nghĩ là tịnh (hấp dẫn), đó là tưởng điên đảo, tâm điên đảo, kiến điên đảo. Này các tỳ-khưu, có bốn tưởng điên đảo, tâm điên đảo, kiến điên đảo này.
Này các tỳ-khưu có bốn tưởng không điên đảo, tâm không điên đảo, kiến không điên đảo này. Thế nào là bốn? (1) Trong vô thường, nghĩ là vô thường, đó là tưởng không điên đảo, tâm không điên đảo, kiến không điên đảo. (2) Trong khổ, nghĩ là khổ, đó là tưởng không điên đảo, tâm không điên đảo, kiến không điên đảo. (3) Trong vô ngã, nghĩ là vô ngã, đó là tưởng không điên đảo, tâm không điên đảo, kiến không điên đảo. (4) Trong bất tịnh (không hấp dẫn), nghĩ là bất tịnh (không hấp dẫn), đó là tưởng không điên đảo, tâm không điên đảo, kiến không điên đảo. Này các tỳ-khưu, có bốn tưởng không điên đảo, tâm không điên đảo, kiến không điên đảo này.
Trong vô thường, tưởng thường, Trong khổ, tưởng là lạc, Trong vô ngã, tưởng ngã, Trong bất tịnh, tưởng tịnh, Chúng sinh đến tà kiến, Tâm động, tưởng tà vọng.
Bị ma trói buộc chặt, Không thoát khỏi ách nạn, Chúng sinh bị luân chuyển, Trong sinh tử luân hồi.
Khi chư Phật xuất hiện, Ở đời chói hào quang, Tuyên thuyết diệu pháp này, Ðưa đến khổ lắng dịu.
Nghe pháp, được trí tuệ, Trở lại được tự tâm, Thấy vô thường, không thường, Thấy đau khổ, là khổ.
Thấy vô ngã, không ngã, Thấy bất tịnh, không tịnh. Do hành chánh tri kiến, Vượt qua mọi đau khổ.
– Hòa thượng Thích Minh Châu dịch (Bình Anson hiệu đính)
——————————————————————————-
Inversions (AN 4.49)
“Bhikkhus, there are these four inversions of perception, inversions of mind, and inversions of view. [1] What four? (1) The inversion of perception, mind, and view that takes the impermanent to be permanent; (2) the inversion of perception, mind, and view that takes what is suffering to be pleasurable;730 (3) the inversion of perception, mind, and view that takes what is non-self to be self; (4) the inversion of perception, mind, and view that takes what is unattractive to be attractive. These are the four inversions of perception, mind, and view.
“There are, bhikkhus, these four non-inversions of perception, non-inversions of mind, and non-inversions of view. What four? (1) The non-inversion of perception, mind, and view that takes the impermanent to be impermanent; (2) the non-inversion of perception, mind, and view that takes what is suffering to be suffering; (3) the non-inversion of perception, mind, and view that takes what is non-self to be non-self; (4) the non-inversion of perception, mind, and view that takes what is unattractive to be unattractive. These are the four non-inversions of perception, mind, and view.”
Perceiving permanence in the impermanent, perceiving pleasure in what is suffering, perceiving a self in what is non-self, and perceiving attractiveness in what is unattractive, beings resort to wrong views, [2] their minds deranged, their perception twisted.
Such people are bound by the yoke of Māra, and do not reach security from bondage. Beings continue in saṃsāra, going to birth and death.
But when the Buddhas arise in the world, sending forth a brilliant light, they reveal this Dhamma that leads to the stilling of suffering.
Having heard it, wise people have regained their sanity. They have seen the impermanent as impermanent and what is suffering as suffering.
They have seen what is non-self as non-self and the unattractive as unattractive. By the acquisition of right view, they have overcome all suffering.
– Translated by Bhikkhu Bodhi
[1] I read with Ce and Be dukkhe bhikkhave sukhan ti saññāvipallāso, as against Ee adukkhe bhikkhave dukkhan ti saññāvipallāso. [2] I read with Ce and Ee micchādiṭṭhigatā, as against Be micchādiṭṭhihatā. But I follow the verse divisions of Be rather than of Ce.
———————————————————
Tôi thích bản dịch bài kệ và chú thích của ông Andrew Olendzki, nhất là về tưởng điên đảo, tâm điên đảo, kiến điên đảo.
Vipallasa Sutta: Distortions of the Mind translated from the Pali by Andrew Olendzki (2005) http://www.accesstoinsight.org/tipitaka/an/an04/an04.049.olen.html
(…)
These four, O Monks, are distortions of perception, distortions of thought distortions of view …
Sensing no change in the changing, Sensing pleasure in suffering, Assuming “self” where there’s no self, Sensing the un-lovely as lovely —
Gone astray with wrong views, beings Mis-perceive with distorted minds.
Bound in the bondage of Mara, Those people are far from safety. They’re beings that go on flowing: Going again from death to birth.
But when in the world of darkness Buddhas arise to make things bright, They present this profound teaching Which brings suffering to an end.
When those with wisdom have heard this, They recuperate their right mind:
They see change in what is changing, Suffering where there’s suffering, “Non-self” in what is without self, They see the un-lovely as such.
By this acceptance of right view, They overcome all suffering.
Translator’s note These verses from the Numerical Discourses give the traditional list of the vipallasas. This Pali word is sometimes translated as “perversions” of the mind; but I find this language too strong and prefer the expression “distortions” of the mind.
The term is composed of a prefix (vi-) which carries the sense of division, separation or removal; another prefix (pari-) meaning around, or complete (as in our related word peri-meter); and a verb (-as) which can be taken as meaning “to throw.” Putting all this together, we have the image of the mind taking something up, turning it around, and throwing it back down — a perversion or distortion of reality by the perceptual and cognitive apparatus of the brain.
The distortions are fundamental to the Buddhist notion of ignorance or delusion. It is not that we are inherently flawed in our nature, it is just that we make some serious errors on many levels as we attempt to make sense of the world around us. As we come to recognize — through meditation practice — some of the ways we misconstrue things about our experience, we become more able to correct for these errors and gain greater clarity.
The distortions of the mind work on three levels of scale. First, distortions of perception (sañña-vipallasa) cause us to misperceive the information coming to us through the sense doors. We might mistake a rope by the path as a snake, for example. Normally such errors of vision are corrected by a more careful scrutiny, but sometimes these sensory mistakes are overlooked and remain.
Distortions of thought (citta-vipallasa) have to do with the next higher level of mental processing, when we find ourselves thinking about or pondering over things in our minds. The mind tends to elaborate upon perception with these thought patterns, and if our thoughts are based upon distortions of perception, then they too will be distorted.
Eventually such thought patterns can become habitual, and evolve into distortions of view (ditthi-vipallasa). We might become so convinced that there is a snake by the path that no amount of evidence to the contrary from our own eyes or reason, nor the advice of others, will shake our beliefs and assumptions. We are stuck in a mistaken view.
Furthermore, these three levels of distortion are cyclical — our perceptions are formed in the context of our views, which are strengthened by our thoughts, and all three work together to build the cognitive systems which make up our unique personality.
You will no doubt recognize that the particular distortions mentioned in this text correspond to the three characteristics. Taking what is impermanent (anicca) as permanent, what is inherently unsatisfactory (dukkha) as a source of satisfaction, and what is without a self (anatta) to constitute a self — these are the primary ways we distort reality to the profound disadvantage of ourselves and others. Seeing the un-lovely (asubha) as lovely rounds out the traditional list of four vipallasas.
I like the way these verses say that when under the influence of these distortions we have “lost our senses” (vi-saññino) and our mind is “broken” or “thrown” (khitta-citta). When the distortions are corrected by right view, clear thinking and careful perception, then the text says that we have “gotten back” (pacca-latthu) our “true mind” (sa-citta).
This is the Buddhist view of mental disease and mental health. Delusion is a mental illness that causes all sorts of suffering; mental health can be restored by correcting the flaws in how the mind operates. Fortunately, “Buddhas arise to make things bright” and illustrate in detail how this recovery of our natural health can be accomplished.
*
Nyanatiloka Mahathera, Buddhist Dictionary (1980)
vipallāsa: điên đảo (perversions) hay ‘vặn vẹo, bóp méo’ (distortions). – “Có bốn điên đảo về tưởng (saññāvipallāsa), tâm ý (cittavipallāsa), và kiến (diṭṭhivipallāsa). Bốn điên đảo ấy là gì? Xem những gì vô thường (anicca) là thường; những gì khổ (dukkha) là lạc (vui thú); những gì không có ngã (vô ngã, anattā) là ngã; những gì bất tịnh (xấu xa, bất mỹ, asubha) là tịnh (mỹ, đẹp)” (AN 4.49).
“Trong các điên đảo, thì tưởng điên đảo, kiến điên đảo, tâm điên đảo, cho vô thường là thường, vô ngã là ngã, và kiến điên đảo lấy khổ làm vui, bất tịnh làm tịnh được đoạn trừ với trí đạo thứ nhất (Dự lưu). Tưởng điên đảo, tâm điên đảo lấy bất tịnh làm tịnh được đoạn trừ với trí đạo thứ ba (Bất lai). Tưởng điên đảo, tâm điên đảo lấy khổ làm vui được đoạn trừ bằng trí đạo thứ tư (A-la-hán)” (Vism XXII.68).
*
vipallāsa: ‘perversions’ or ‘distortions’. – “There are 4 perversions which may be either of perception (saññāvipallāsa), of consciousness (cittavipallāsa) or of views (diṭṭhivipallāsa). And which are these four? To regard what is impermanent (anicca) as permanent; what is painful (dukkha) as pleasant (or happiness-yielding); what is without a self (anattā) as a self; what is impure (ugly: asubha) as pure or beautiful” (AN 4.49). – See Manual of Insight, by Ledi Sayadaw (WHEEL 31/32). p.5.
“Of the perversions, the following are eliminated by the 1st path-knowledge (Sotāpatti): the perversions of perception, consciousness and views, that the impermanent is permanent and what is not a self is a self; further, the perversion of views that the painful is pleasant, and the impure is pure. By the 3rd path-knowledge (Anāgāmitā) are eliminated: the perversions of perception and consciousness that the impure is pure. By the 4th path-knowledge (Arahatta) are eliminated the perversions of perception and consciousness that the painful is pleasant” (Vism XXII.68).
Binh Anson

Nên xem

Thiền phái Trúc Lâm

  NHỮNG THIỀN SƯ CÓ ẢNH HƯỞNG ĐẾN PHÁI TRÚC LÂM Tại Việt Nam có …